What causes kidney stones, symptoms, Causes and treatment

Introduction of Kidney stones

Kidney stone are small mineral deposits inside kidney. which do not cause any discomfort. but if those small mineral deposits become bigger in size then kidney stones become a problem.

kidney stones are made up of mineral and salts. There are many small and tiny stones passes through kidney which do not cause pain or discomfort they simply passes through pee. Kidney stones cause pain when they passes through urinary tract and block urine flow.

What causes kidney stones, symptoms, Causes and treatment

Symptoms of Kidney stones

Symptoms of kidney stones are different accroding to the size of Kidney stones inside your kidney.

As mentioned earlier small kidney stones do not cause any problem or pain but as kidney stones are increasing in their size many types of pain and discomforts starts appearing.

symptoms of kidney stones are-:

  • Pain in back or side below ribs – Kidney stones are very much painful. When stone moves inside your urinary tract, the intensity and place of pain shifts. pain comes and goes in some times of interval. There is soo much pain when kidney stone stuck into your ureter.
  • Blood in urine – This is the most common symptom of Kidney stones. you will notice blood in while urination with or without pain.
  • Burning and pain – You will find very high pain and burning sensation while urination.
  • Bad smell of urine – You will notice your urine smell more then normal. Smell in urine is due to urinary tract infection.
  • Change in colour- You will also notice, the change in colour of urine to Red, Brown or Pink.
  • frequent urge to pee– You will frequently urge to pee again and again. but when you go there is no urination or little.
  • Nausea and vomiting – Nausea and vomiting is very common symptoms. those symptoms can occur because of nerve connection between Gastrointestinal tract and kidney.
  • Fever and chills – Fever and chills are the symptoms of infection in Urinary tract or any other serious problems of body.

Types of Kidney stones

Kidney stones are of different types, which are developed due to different cause. here are some examples of different kind of Kidney stones.

  • Calcium stones – Calcium stones are the most common type of Kidney stones. Calcium stones are made up of calcium and oxalate. Oxalate is very important for our body. Oxalate when combine with calcium in digestive system then it do not have any harm, but if oxalate combine with calcium inside Kidney then only it makes stones and cause problems.
  • Uric acid stones – Uric acid stone forms due to loss of fluid. fluid loss in body is because of diarrhoea or other causes. more common in person with diabetes or any other metabolic symptoms.
  • Cystine stones – This types of Kidney stones formed due to excess of specific amio acid which is formed by kidney. It is a hereditary disorder.
  • Struvite stones – Struvite stones is formed due to urinary tract infection. Those stones grow very quickly without giving any symptoms.

Causes of Kidney stones

There are many factors which are responsible for cause of kidney stones. The main cause which is responsible for kidney stones is lack of water in body.

Lack of water in body cause kidney stones because due to lack of water there is increase in formation of uric acid inside kidney.

There excess of uric acid form acidic environment and acidic environment leads to formation of kidney stones.

Many studies found that person who drinks less then 8-10 glass of water per day may increase the causes of Kidney stones.

Kidney stones also causes due to family genetic history. those who have genetic history of Kidney stones are very much likely to have kidney stones.

There are several factors which increases risk of Kidney stones are :-

  • Drinking less water – Drinking less water then recommend will increase the risk of kidney stones as mentioned earlier.
  • Family history – If you have any family history of Kidney stones then there is high chances of Kidney stones to you also.
  • Obesity – Obese people have also risk to have kidney stones.
  • high sodium – Diet which contains high sodium or salt increase the risk factor not only for kidney stones but also for other physiological problems in body.
  • Digestive problems – Digestive system problem may increase the risk of Kidney stones because of digestive system problem the absorption of water and other important material are affeced which causes kidney stones.
  • Hyperparathyroidism – When parathyroid gland become overactive it increases the formation of calcium phosphate stones. due to formation of excess of parathyroid hormone calcium stones form in kidney.
  • Suppliment and medicine – Certain Suppliment and medicine can also cause kidney stones like vitamin c and calcium based suppliment. some medicine used to treat headache also causes. when medicine and suppliment used in excess.

Treatment of Kidney stones

Treatment of kidney stones depends on the type of kidney stones you have. small kidney stones do not any surgery but bigger kidney stones need surgery or any other type of treatment.

Smaller kidney stones treatment

  • Water – The best treatment for small Kidney stones are water, drink more water 3-4 liter per day so kidney stones may pass through urine.
  • Medicines – Small stones can also cause lotels of pain and discomforts. when they pass through urinary tract. doctor give you pain killer for pain and for stones to pass easily through urinary tract doctor give medicine which relaxes the muscle of ureter which help to pass small stones easily through urine.

Big kidney stones treatment

Big stone in kidney cause lots of pain and discomfort. Big stones can block ureter which block urine flow. blockage of ureter increase pressure inside, result in lot of pain while urination.

Also big stones of kidney cause bleeding and infection of urinary tract.

Treatment of big kidney stones are –

  • Sound waves – extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a technique used for treatment of big kidney stones. in this treatment sound waves passes which causes high vibration and break big stones into small stones so patient will pass small stones from urine.
  • Surgery – If the ESWL technique do not work then, surgery is used to remove kidney stones by percutaneous nephrolithotomy. in this procedure scope is inserted from incisions at back by using surgical instruments.
What causes kidney stones, symptoms, Causes and treatment

Prevention of Kidney stones

  • Drink more water – Water is the most important thing for our body to work. many problems can happen only due to deficiency of water. Kidney stones major cause is deficiency of water due to deficiency of water uric acid increase and form stones in kidney.
  • less sodium – Major source of sodium and calcium in our diet is from salt, reduce intake of more salt. Excess of calcium cause calcium kidney stones.
  • Eat oxalate rich food – When oxalate and calcium combine in kidney they form kidney stones. but if they combine in digestive tract then it do not form kidney stones and also help in Prevention of Kidney stones.
  • Less animal protein – Animal Protein is high in uric acid and uric acid cause uric acid kidney stones and also calcium stones in kidney.
  • Eat calcium rich foods – Eating more calcium rich food may decrease the calcium oxalate kidney stones. It is a myth that eating high calcium rich food cause kidney stones. Only calcium supplements are bad and cause kidney stones.

Kidney stones is very common problem. Many people are suffering from this disease but after following prevention method there is low risk of kidney stones.

The only best method is to stay hydrated and drink much water daily.

If you find any symptoms of kidney stones then please visit your doctor for Check up.

Sources

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355759

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154193#diagnosis

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